Before a standard is established, often a research program is executed beforehand.

Research undertaken prior to standardization is called pre-normative research; some examples are the assessment of (available) test methods, development (and validation of) methods or investigating the limitations of certain products or processes. This is important input for the development of standards.

Research undertaken during the standardization process is named co-normative research; often following up on further research needs determined after the pre-normative phase – i.e. research undertaken in conjunction with the standardization process, to establish a statistical basis for the technique or process, in particular its reproducibility (same user), repeatability (different users) and uncertainty.

On this website, you will find examples of pre- en co-normative research projects funded by the European.

Additionally, research projects that focus on market-uptake or raising awareness among certain target groups are executed as well, for stimulating the bio-based economy!

This section contains an overview of European research projects in the bio-based economy.